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Complete each conversation with two words from the list. Not all words will be used.
1. Man: What do you do?
Woman: I’m a musician. I can play several .
Man: That’s interesting. I’m a . Maybe I could write some music for you to play.
2. Woman 1: You went to a concert yesterday, didn’t you? How was it?
Woman 2: Amazing! One of the musicians was sick, so I didn’t expect the band to well, but actually, they were great. Everybody in the had a great time.
3. Man 1: What did you do during the weekend?
Man 2: I watched a about some famous singer-songwriters. It was slow at times, but the music was great, and overall I would give it a recommendation.
4. Woman: Your kid’s a great singer – she’s so when she’s performing!
Man: Thanks. I’ll tell her what you said. It’ll make her happy. Woman: She must practice a lot. How did you her to do that? Man: Actually, she loves music so much that she doesn’t need any encouragement from me.
Choose the best form of the word to complete each sentence. The words all come from Unit 8, Reading 2.
5. My grandfather is in his 80s, but he still has several strong __________ with friends from elementary school.
6. There’s a good documentary online about some people who __________ from a prison camp.
7. I was speaking with my son’s teacher about what we could do __________ music education at his school.
8. My friend told me that one __________ for a cold is to drink hot water with lemon and ginger
9. Because of the current __________ in that country, I think we should delay our trip there.
10. Did you hear that Mary __________ a dog that had fallen into the river? Apparently, she jumped in to save it.
11. My manager asked me who we should make __________ for communicating with clients, and I suggested either Anne or Zack.
MUSIC FOR CHANGE
From ending child slavery to teaching people about AIDS and world peace, musicians around the world are spreading a message of hope.
Jason Mraz: Singing for Freedom
“If my music can contribute to happiness, then that’s my main responsibility,” says American singer and songwriter Jason Mraz. But Mraz does more than make people happy. He wants to use his music to make a positive change and improve people’s lives.
In 2010, Mraz visited Ghana with an organization called Free the Slaves. Its goal is to stop child slavery, a serious issue in many parts of the world. In Ghana, parents who are very poor sometimes sell their own children into slavery.
What inspired Mraz to visit Ghana? “It started with ‘Freedom Song,’ written by musician Luc Reynaud,” he says. “I loved it, performed it, and passed it on to my friends at Free the Slaves.” After seeing videos of kids in Ghana enjoying the song, he decided to visit. On his trip, he worked with James Kofi Annan – a former child slave. Mraz explains that Annan works to “rescue children, and get them back to health. [He also] works with their parents to make sure they can make a living so the children aren’t vulnerable to traffickers.”
Arn Chorn-Pond: Healing with Music
As a child, Arn Chorn-Pond worked in a prison camp in Cambodia during the Khmer Rouge period. Life in the camp was terrifying. Camp workers of all ages were badly treated by the guards. Many workers died as a result. Chorn-Pond stayed alive mainly because of his skills as a musician. The camp guards liked listening to him as he played his flute.
Chorn-Pond finally escaped into the jungle, where he lived alone for many months. Later, an American aid worker met him and took him to the United States. When Chorn-Pond grew up, he went back to Cambodia. He learned that many traditional musicians and dancers had died during the Khmer Rouge period. So Chorn-Pond is working with older musicians to teach young Cambodians to play traditional music. In this way, he is helping a new generation keep their musical traditions alive.
Zinhle Thabethe: Bringing Hope
National Geographic Explorer Zinhle Thabethe is a lead singer of a South African group called the Sinikithemba Choir. The members of this choir have a strong bond: They are all HIV positive. Thabethe first learned she had HIV in 2002. A doctor told her he could not treat her condition because medicine was not widely available. But Thabethe did not give up, and she finally found a clinic that was able to help HIV/AIDS patients.
Thabethe and other members of the Sinikithemba Choir send a message of hope to people with HIV/AIDS. She feels that she understands their situation. “I know what they are going through, and can help support and guide them,” she says. “Only by being open and asking for help will we know that we are not alone. If you have someone who will walk the journey with you, it is always easier.”
The questions refer to Reading 2 from Unit 8. Review the reading passage “MUSIC FOR CHANGE”. Then match each statement to the person it most closely describes. Write the answer like this: “a. Jason Mraz“
12. Giving listeners joy through music is most important.
13. Hearing a song by another artist led to a big decision.
14. Living with the same condition created strong links.
15. Making music was a way to deal with loss of freedom.
16. Seeing the reaction of young children was inspiring.
17. Sharing things with someone can make life easier.
18. Working with older musicians can restore traditions.
A What makes a hit song? Why do some songs become smash hits while others do not? These questions may seem impossible to answer. After all, since the beginnings of modern pop music in the 1950s, tens of thousands of different songs have become hits. How can we identify the factors that made those songs more popular than others? Well, recent advances in data analysis mean it is possible to study every hit song and look for similarities. As it turns out, many hit songs are surprisingly similar to one another.
B Analysis shows that many hits have a similar sound. In fact, they rely on just four musical chords: C major, G major, A minor, and F major. In hit songs, these four chords are played and repeated in various patterns that are very attractive. Examples of hits that use these four chords include “Let it Be” by The Beatles, “With or Without You” by U2, and “I Knew You Were Trouble” by Taylor Swift. Not every hit uses just these four chords, of course, but many of them do.
C Analysis shows other characteristics that many hit songs share. Generally speaking, successful songs are ones that people can dance to easily, and the more danceable a song is, the better. The energy level of a song is important, too. In simple terms, songs that have more energy tend to be more popular than those with less energy. Loudness also matters. Since the 1950s and 1960s, hits songs have become louder and louder. Finally, hit songs average almost 120 beats per minute. Some songs with a faster or slower rhythm have become hits, but 120 BPM seems to be the ideal number.
D The lyrics – or words – of songs matter, too. Analysis from the last six decades shows that certain themes or topics are common in hit songs. The most popular themes have changed over the years, but there are seven themes that have been the most common. These are loss, such as the loss of someone you love; romantic desire or love; wanting to be better; breaking up with somebody; feeling pain; wanting to get inspiration; and positive feelings about the past. In addition, the lyrics of hit songs often contain the same influential words; in recent decades, these include time, love, life, heart, night, dance, and baby
First read the passage before. Then identify the paragraph that contains the following information. You can use a letter more than once. Write the answer like this “a. Paragraph A“
19. examples of successful songs that use repeated patterns of musical notes
20. how the volume of successful songs has changed in the past 60 years or so
21. some examples of words that influence whether a song becomes a hit
22. the average number of beats per minute that hit songs tend to have
23. the four groups of notes that hit songs often repeat in different order
24. the most common subjects that songs which have been hits are about
25. the number of songs that have become hits in the period since the 1950s
26. why it is now possible to recognize patterns that many hit songs share
Taking notes when you read can help you understand how the main ideas relate to supporting ideas. Using abbreviations and symbols can help you take notes more quickly.
The notes below summarize key information from Paragraph C of the passage about hit songs. Use the notes to answer the questions.
Analysis shows other characteristics that many hit songs share. Generally speaking, successful songs are ones that people can dance to easily, and the more danceable a song is, the better. The energy level of a song is important, too. In simple terms, songs that have more energy tend to be more popular than those with less energy. Loudness also matters. Since the 1950s and 1960s, hits songs have become louder and louder. Finally, hit songs average almost 120 beats per minute. Some songs with a faster or slower rhythm have become hits, but 120 BPM seems to be the ideal number.
27. The abbreviation “usu” in the first and second lines of the notes probably means ____.
28. The abbreviation “nrg” in the second line of the notes probably stands for ____
29. The abbreviation “impt” in the second, third, and fouth lines of the notes probably means ____.
30. The symbol “&” in the third line of the notes stands for ____.
31. The letters “BPM” in the fourth line of the notes probably stand for ____.
A narrative paragraph describes important events, usually in the order they happened.
Put the sentences in order to make a narrative paragraph. Write a-e in the spaces.
a. Her first two albums were not successful, but after that she released several records that made her a big star.
b. In Colombia in 1977, a girl called Shakira Isabel Mebarak Ripoll – usually known just as Shakira – was born.
c. She wrote her first song four years later, and at the age of 13 she signed her first contract to make records.
d. These days she works on TV, continues to compose and sing popular songs, and looks after her two children.
e. When she was four years old, Shakira had an experience that made her realize she wanted to be a performer.
EXAMPLE OF HOW IT SHOULD BE WRITTEN
Time expressions indicate when events happened. There are many different expressions you can use in English as the examples below show:
Complete each sentence with the most natural time expression from the list above. More than one answer may be possible.
33. Gene Simmons, one of the lead singers of the rock band Kiss, has set his own hair on fire numerous times performing in front of audiences.
34. Lady Gaga has released two albums with similar names. The Fame Monster came out in 2009, just one year her first album, The Fame, which was released in 2008.
35. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, one of the most famous composers of classical music, died 1791, just 35 years after he was born.
36. Although experimental electronic instruments were developed over 100 years ago, electronic music only became common the 1960s and 1970s.
Write full sentences in answer to these questions.
37. What kinds of music do you most enjoy listening to? Why?
38. What kinds of music do you like listening to least? Why?
39. Would you prefer to be a famous musician or a famous actor? Why?
40. What kinds of emotions can music produce in a listener?
41. Think of a recent song that was successful. What do you think made it so popular?
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42. Read the email from your classmate. Then write a response in your own words
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