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Read the passage, noticing the gaps. Choose the vocabulary word from the box that is most appropriate for each space. Not all words will be used.
Many human activities affect the health of global oceans. These many various activities are (1) , but include fishing, manufacturing, and oil production. Pollution has increased and in some areas we have even seen it (2) in recent years. The amount, or (3) of oxygen in the water is less because there is more pollution and carbon dioxide. Large ships such as oil tankers and (4) fishing boats pollute rivers that empty into the sea. Warmer water temperatures harm some fish (5) . Scientists say that some fish will not (6) if we don’t make changes. Environmentalists (7) that we only have 30 years before it’s too late. We must (8) pollution and overfishing as soon as we can to make a difference.
Match each underlined part of the sentence to a vocabulary word that has a similar meaning. Not all words will be used. Write the answer like this: “a. declining“.
2. The new law limiting tuna catches has had a strong effect on commercial fishermen.
3. We will certainly be at the airport to meet your flight.
4. You can always depend on Pat to fix your computer quickly.
5. It is absolutely necessary that you have protein in your diet even if you are a vegetarian.
6. The weather service has warned us to expect extreme thunderstorms later today.
7. When you have several flights, you should be knowledgeable about delays or cancellations.
8. Maria prepared separate gifts for each person in her wedding party.
Where Have All the Fish Gone?
A Throughout history, people have thought of the ocean as a diverse and limitless source of food. Today, however, there are clear signs that the oceans do have a limit. Most of the big fish in our oceans – including many of the fish we love to eat – are now gone. One major factor is overfishing. People are taking so many fish from the sea that species cannot reproduce quickly enough to maintain their populations. How did this problem start? And what is the future for fish?
SOURCE OF THE PROBLEM
B For centuries, local fishermen caught only enough fish to feed their families and their communities. They used traditional gear like spears and hooks that targeted a single fish at a time. However, in the mid-20th century, more people around the world became interested in fish as a source of protein and healthy fats. In response to this, governments gave money and other help to the fishing industry.
C As a result, the fishing industry grew. Large commercial fishing companies began catching huge quantities of fish. They made a lot of money selling the fish around the world. In addition, they started using new fishing technologies that made fishing easier. These technologies included sonar to locate fish, and dragging large nets along the ocean floor. Modern equipment enabled commercial fishermen to catch many more fish than local fishermen.
RISE OF THE LITTLE FISH
D In 2010, the Census of Marine Life estimated that 90 percent of the big ocean fish populations are gone, mainly due to overfishing. In particular, commercial fishing has greatly reduced the number of large fish such as cod, tuna, and salmon. Today, there are plenty of fish in the sea, but they’re mostly just the little ones. Small fish, such as sardines and anchovies, have more than doubled in number. This is largely because there aren’t enough big fish to eat them.
E This is a problem because, in order to be stable, oceans need predators. Predators are necessary to kill the sick and weak fish. Without them, there are too many unhealthy, small fish in the sea. This can cause serious problems for the sea’s food chain and the health of our oceans.
A FUTURE FOR FISH?
F A study published in 2006 in the journal Science made a prediction: If we continue to overfish the oceans, most of the fish that we catch now – from tuna to sardines – will disappear by 2050. However, we can prevent this situation if we restore the ocean’s biodiversity.
G Scientists say there are a few ways we can do this. First, commercial fishing companies need to catch fewer large fish. This will increase the number of predator fish in the sea. Another way to improve the biodiversity of the oceans is to develop aquaculture – fish farming. Growing fish on farms means that we catch fewer wild fish. This gives wild fish a chance to survive and reproduce. In addition, we can make good choices about what we eat. For example, we can stop eating the fish that are most in danger – like bluefin tuna – or only eat fish from fish farms. If we are careful today, we can still look forward to a future with fish.
Review the passage before from Unit 4. Then read each question and choose the correct answer.
9. What is the purpose of this passage?
10. In the section titled “Source of the Problem,” which of these happened first?
11. According to the reading, why did people start to eat more fish?
12. Which is the best description of overfishing?
13. Which of the following is considered a large fish?
14. Which of these sections contains a prediction?
15. Which statement would the author most likely agree with?
A Salmon are considered to be one of the healthiest fish to eat because they are low in fat, high in protein, and have omega-3 that is good for the heart. No wonder that salmon consumption has tripled since 1980. However, wild populations of salmon have radically declined, so most salmon eaten today is produced by aquaculture or fish-farming. Yet, farmed salmon are linked to serious ecological and economic problems.
B In the wild, salmon breed in rivers and the smolt, or young salmon, swim to oceans where they grow into adult fish. As carnivores at the top of the food chain, salmon eat smaller fish. Due to the high demand for salmon, the species has been overfished and wild populations cannot reproduce fast enough to replace the fish that are commercially caught.
C In aquaculture, salmon eggs are allowed to hatch and develop into young fish. These smolt are then transferred to pens or cages in the sea. The pens are surrounded by nets so salt water flows into and out of them. The net cages are located in bays where they are protected from heavy seas and storms. One sea pen can hold up to 90,000 fish. Salmon do best in cold water, so the colder coasts of Norway and Chile have many fish farms.
D Wild salmon hunt smaller fish for their food, but farmed fish must be fed. Most fish farmers use fish meal and fish oil made from sardines and anchovies, known as forage fish. Until recently, it took four or five pounds of fish meal to produce one pound of salmon meat. Being carnivores, salmon can’t live on vegetable protein the way chickens or cows can. So environmentalists worry that the supply of forage fish used to feed salmon is not sustainable. However, recent research indicates that an even more nutritious food can actually use a much lower amount of forage fish. The goal is to use one pound of food for each pound of salmon. That would be more economical than land-raised meat since it takes seven pounds of food to produce each pound of beef.
E Salmon aquaculture produces pollution if the sea water doesn’t flush out the net cages. Crowded conditions within the cages mean that fish diseases spread rapidly. Although the fish are trapped in the netting, sometimes some escape. If diseased fish escape the nets, they can infect wild salmon populations and cause an even greater decline in their numbers. Sometimes chemicals and antibiotics are used in aquaculture, but they can cause more harm than good if they enter the food supply.
F The salmon farming industry recognizes that there are problems with efficiency, environmental impact, and maintaining healthy fish populations. After eight years of work, a group started by the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) developed a set of essential standards for salmon aquaculture. Over 70 percent of the world’s salmon producers have agreed to meet these requirements by 2020. Their goal is to produce quality fish in a way that is sustainable for the future.
Read the passage before. Then read each question and choose the correct answer.
16. Based on information in the passage, why might a doctor recommend that patients eat salmon?
17. According to Paragraphs B and C, which statement is NOT true?
18. According to the reading, where would be a good place to start a salmon farm?
19. What is the problem with forage fish?
20. Which problem is NOT mentioned in Paragraph E?
21. According to the passage, what is the reason that crowded nets are a problem?
22. Which statement would the author probably agree with?
Read the chart to decide if each statement is TRUE or FALSE. Write the answer in CAPITAL LETTERS.
23. The chart only shows tuna catches by Asian countries.
24. The amount of tuna caught varies by year.
25. From 1952 to 1975, Japan caught more tuna than the United States.
26. Mexico first started catching tuna in the 1990s.
27. 20,000 metric tons of tuna were caught in 1972.
Read the sentences, paying close attention to the descriptive words used. Write I for an increase, D for a decrease, or NC for no change (all in CAPITAL LETTERS).
28. The numbers of large fish have declined sharply since the 1980s.
29. Catches by commercial fishermen quadrupled after sonar was used.
30. The gourmet market for lobster and crabs remains steady in Europe.
31. Ruth’s interest in eating sashimi and other raw foods peaked when she was in Japan.
32. Restaurant sales of wild salmon dipped last winter.
Look at the graph below. Then complete the sentences using the words in the box. Not all words will be used.
33. The bluefin tuna population reached a _____ point in about 1960.
34. The number of adult fish capable of breeding _____ sharply in the decade between 1962 and 1972.
35. The breeding stock ______ slightly in the mid 1970s.
36. The numbers ______ between 1990 and 1995, starting at about 25,000 tons.
37. After a decline lasting until 2010, the population seems ______.
In each pair of sentences, one sentence has an error. Choose the sentence that is correct by writing in CAPITAL LETER A or B in the space.
A. According to the article we should make careful choices about the fish we eat.
B. According to the article, we should make careful choices about the fish we eat.
A. There are fewer large predators in 2017 than there were in 2010.
B. There are fewer large predators in 2017 than there are in 2010.
A. Environmentalists hope that pollution will decrease by 2050.
B. Environmentalists hope that pollution will decrease at 2050.
A. There was a huge increase in aquaculture in the years in 1990 and 2015.
B. There was a huge increase in aquaculture in the years between 1990 and 2015.
A. Populations of small fish have increased sharply in recent years.
B. Populations of small fish has increased sharply in recent years.
43. Using the chart above, write a paragraph about three major changes in fishing from 1950 to 2014. Discuss trends in fish farming (aquaculture) as contrasted to fish caught in the wild (wild capture). Include a concluding sentence for your paragraph.
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