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Complete the paragraph with the words in the box. There are two extra words.
1. Until 1780, humans only knew about the five that are Earth: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. William Herschel, an astronomer, changed that. He was born in Germany but moved to England when he was nineteen. He made his own telescopes to look at the night sky. They were very good quality and were for looking deep into space. In March 1781, he something new – a strange, object in the sky. At first he thought it was a , but then he realized it was a planet in our solar system. Scientists were very about this, and Herschel became famous. Today we call the planet Uranus. It takes 84 years to go around the sun, and it’s average from the sun is 2.8 billion kilometers.
Complete the sentences with the words in the box. There is one extra word.
2. We have learned a lot about our solar system, but many things are still a .
3. My sister had a long and missed six months of the academic year.
4. I think the 21st century will see the of regular space travel.
5. A return trip from Earth to Mars would take about a year to .
6. I like the campus cafeteria because it has a wide of food choices.
7. Gases like hydrogen and helium most of the planet Saturn.
8. At 1,642 meters, Lake Baikal in Russia is the lake on Earth.
Look up at the sky on a dark, moonless night. There are many thousands of stars. But are there other planets like Earth? And could humans live there one day?
New technology is helping astronomers discover hundreds of new planets. So far, we know of more than 3,500 “exoplanets.” These are planets that move around stars other than the sun. Some exoplanets may be similar to Earth.
An Earthlike exoplanet must have certain features. It needs to be the right distance from its star. It will then have a suitable temperature for living things: not too cold and not too hot. A planet at the right distance from its star might also have water. Where there is water, there might also be life.
Recent discoveries have shown that Earthlike exoplanets may be more common than once thought. In 2016, scientists were excited to find seven Earthlike exoplanets around a single star – Trappist-1. Each planet is a similar size to Earth, and each may have water. Although the seven planets are all very close to the star, Trappist-1 is much cooler than our sun. Temperatures could therefore be suitable for life.
Could it be possible for humans to live on an Earthlike planet one day? The biggest problem is distance. The nearest star system, Alpha Centauri, is 4.3 light-years from Earth. In 2016, scientists found an Earthlike exoplanet in this system.
However, traveling there with today’s technology would take thousands of years. With future technology, however, this may change. Scientist Andreas Tziolas thinks that one day we might be able to travel to another star system. He thinks that new technology will let us reach the nearest star in a few decades. “I believe we can achieve some form of interstellar exploration within a hundred years,” he says.
Oceans have always seemed mysterious. In the past, people believed that giant dragons and other monsters lived deep in the seas. Other people imagined mermaids and underwater cities.
Today, much of the world’s oceans are still a mystery. “The oceans cover 71 percent of our planet,” says oceanography professor Dr. Robert Ballard. “Yet only 5 percent of it has been explored.” In fact, we know more about some areas of Mars than about some parts of the world’s oceans.
MOUNTAINS IN THE SEA
New technology, however, is helping scientists explore these hidden worlds. For example, scientists are using an underwater vehicle called DeepSee to explore seamounts – underwater mountains. Scientists have used DeepSee to study Las Gemelas, an area of seamounts near Costa Rica. A huge variety of species lives on and around Las Gemelas. Some of these species have never been seen before. Some may have chemicals that can help people fight illnesses, such as cancer.
DOWN IN THE DEPTHS
The deepest place on Earth is the Mariana Trench in the Pacific Ocean. The ocean floor there is about 36,000 feet (11,000 meters) deep. In 2012, filmmaker and explorer James Cameron reached the Mariana Trench in a vehicle called Deepsea Challenger. He was the first person to complete the journey alone. Cameron took photos and video on the ocean floor. He also collected underwater samples.
Vehicles such as Deepsea Challenger are helping us discover new animals and plants. Some of these have been around for millions of years. These discoveries could help us better understand how life on our planet began. Deep-sea exploration also helps us in other ways. For example, we are learning how underwater earthquakes cause tsunamis. As Cameron says, “This is the beginning of opening up [a] new frontier.”
Find numbers from the two passages before (“Other worlds” and “Hidden Depths”) to complete the statements.
9. The star Trappist-1 has Earthlike planets going around it.
10. The oceans cover percent of the Earth’s surface.
11. So far, astronomers have discovered more than exoplanets.
12. A filmmaker traveled alone to the Mariana Trench in .
13. Earth is around light-years from the nearest other star system.
14. Humans have explored just percent of the world’s oceans.
15. One scientist thinks we will explore star systems in years or less.
16. The deepest part of the sea and Earth is meters down.
Earth is our home, but it’s possible that humans will populate our moon one day. We first visited the moon in 1969, and now scientists are talking about going to live there. That will be a huge achievement because there are many difficulties for humans to deal with on the moon.
Obviously we will need air to breathe. And air is also important because it protects us from radiation – a dangerous energy from the sun. Without air, radiation can kill. The moon has no atmosphere, so we will need to make our own air there before the moon is a suitable home.
Of course, we will also need food and water. Again, the moon doesn’t have these things, and we won’t want to bring them from Earth because space travel is very expensive. Did you know, for example, that sending a one-liter bottle of water into space costs over $20,000? So people will have to recycle water and grow food on the moon.
There is another problem that people on the moon might have. At first, homes and towns on the moon will be very small. People will have to live in these small spaces and it will be difficult for them to ever be alone. Like many animals, humans find it difficult to always be near others. Studies show that crowded places cause stress, and there is a greater chance of people there having physical or mental illnesses.
Although we will have to deal with problems on the moon, they are things that we will probably solve quite quickly. We will learn from the experience, and who knows, perhaps our great grandchildren will travel to other galaxies, or even live on distant stars.
Read the passage before. Then look at the statements and write in CAPITAL LETTERS:
TRUE if the statement is the same as information in the passage
FALSE if the statement is different to information in the passage
NOT GIVEN if there is no information about this in the passage
17. Humans have visited the moon several times since 1969.
18. Radiation isn’t a problem on the moon.
19. It’s expensive to transport water to the moon.
20. People who like being alone may find it difficult to live on the moon.
21. There will be an important mission to the moon in 2030.
22. There is a higher chance of people getting sick if they live close to each for a long time.
23. The author doesn’t think we will ever solve the problems of living on the moon.
What paragraphs are the notes referring to? From the last passage, choose the letter of the correct paragraph.
24. unusual living areas on moon / ppl must learn to live in small spaces This note refers to paragraph
25. living on moon will bring problems / ppl will learn and perhaps travel further This note refers to paragraph
26. no air on moon / also need to solve serious radiation problem This note refers to paragraph
27. expensive to bring supplies from Earth / must recycle and grow food This note refers to paragraph
28. first visited moon in 69 / living there big step forward for ppl This note refers to paragraph
Rewrite each sentence so that negative opinions become positive and positive opinions become negative.
Example I think we will live on other planets this century.
I don’t think we will live on other planets this century.
29. In my opinion, working part-time as a student is a good idea.
30. I believe governments have evidence of aliens and UFOs.
31. My friend doesn’t think there are unknown fish species in the ocean.
32. In my opinion, the college bookstore should reduce its prices.
33. Our teacher believes space exploration is a good idea.
Complete each sentence with a modal verb from the box. You can use each word more than once.
34. I join the astronomy club, but I’m not sure yet.
35. I’m certain that humans visit Mars one day. NASA is already preparing a mission there.
36. Space tourism definitely become popular because the idea is so exciting.
37. There’s a chance of heavy rain this afternoon, so we have football practice.
Rewrite the sentences and correct the mistakes. Each sentence has two mistakes.
Example I believe, aliens might helping us solve problems on Earth.
I believe aliens might help us solve problems on Earth.
38. I think, businesspeople will finds ways to make space tourism less expensive.
39. I not believe astronomers will discover new planets where humans can lives.
40. his first lecture was boring but I believe Professor Lee’s classes will improve.
41. I don’t thinking it will be easy to, travel to other star systems in the future.
42. In my opinion a university in Boston will is a good place to study.
Complete the sentences. Use your own ideas to make predictions.
1. I think … will …
2. In my opinion, … may not …
3. Some people believe … might …
4. I don’t think …
5. A friend of mine believes …
Example I think … will …
I think we will only use digital money in the future.
43. Write full sentences. Make sure each sentence has a subject, verb, and correct punctuation.
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